Explains fundamental physics concepts, including mechanics, motion, conservation of energy, Newton´s laws, rotational dynamics, relativity, waves, and thermodynamics, while looking at how these ideas developed.
In ´´The End of Certainty´´, world-renowned chemist Ilya Prigogine draws together probability and certainty, Einstein and Shakespeare, and chaos and complexity to explain why our fundamental beliefs about time are wrong. Prigogine´s work formulates a groundbreaking link between instability and chaos and the evolutionary framework in which we exist. Illustrations. Glossary.
The study of the electronic structure of materials is at a momentous stage, with the emergence of new computational methods and theoretical approaches. Many properties of materials can now be determined directly from the fundamental equations of quantum mechanics, bringing new insights into critical problems in physics, chemistry, and materials science. This volume provides an introduction to the field and describes its conceptual framework, the capabilities of present methods, limitations, and challenges for the future. Each chapter presents thoughtful exercises to emphasize salient points and to challenge the readers understanding.
This is a graduate text on turbulent flows, an important topic in fluid dynamics. It is up-to-date, comprehensive, designed for teaching, and is based on a course taught by the author at Cornell University for a number of years. The book consists of two parts followed by a number of appendices. Part I provides a general introduction to turbulent flows, how they behave, how they can be described quantitatively, and the fundamental physical processes involved. Part II is concerned with different approaches for modelling or simulating turbulent flows. The necessary mathematical techniques are presented in the appendices. This book is primarily intended as a graduate level text in turbulent flows for engineering students, but it may also be valuable to students in applied mathematics, physics, oceanography and atmospheric sciences, as well as researchers and practising engineers.
This book is a comprehensive and intensive monograph for scientists, engineers and applied mathematicians, as well as graduate students in fluid dynamics. It starts with a brief review of fundamentals of fluid dynamics, with an innovative emphasis on the intrinsic orthogonal decomposition of fluid dynamic process, by which one naturally identifies the content and scope of vorticity and vortex dynamics. This is followed by a detailed presentation of vorticity dynamics as the basis of later development. In vortex dynamics part the book deals with the formation, motion, interaction, stability, and breakdown of various vortices. Typical vortex structures are analyzed in laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows, including stratified and rotational fluids. Physical understanding of vertical flow phenomena and mechanisms is the first priority throughout the book. To make the book self-contained, some mathematical background is briefly presented in the main text, but major prerequisites are systematically given in appendices. Material usually not seen in books on vortex dynamics is included, such as geophysical vortex dynamics, aerodynamic vortical flow diagnostics and management.
This self-contained textbook with exercises discusses a broad range of selected topics from classical mechanics and electromagnetic theory that inform key issues related to modern accelerators. Part I presents fundamentals of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism for mechanical systems, canonical transformations, action-angle variables, and then linear and nonlinear oscillators. The Hamiltonian for a circular accelerator is used to evaluate the equations of motion, the action, and betatron oscillations in an accelerator. From this base, we explore the impact of field errors and nonlinear resonances. This part ends with the concept of the distribution function and an introduction to the kinetic equation to describe large ensembles of charged particles and to supplement the previous single-particle analysis of beam dynamics. Part II focuses on classical electromagnetism and begins with an analysis of the electromagnetic field from relativistic beams, both in vacuum and in a resistive pipe. Plane electromagnetic waves and modes in waveguides and radio-frequency cavities are also discussed. The focus then turns to radiation processes of relativistic beams in different conditions, including transition, diffraction, synchrotron, and undulator radiation. Fundamental concepts such as the retarded time for the observed field from a charged particle, coherent and incoherent radiation, and the formation length of radiation are introduced. We conclude with a discussion of laser-driven acceleration of charged particles and the radiation damping effect. Appendices on electromagnetism and special relativity are included, and references are given in some chapters as a launching point for further reading. This text is intended for graduate students who are beginning to explore the field of accelerator physics, but is also recommended for those who are familiar with particle accelerators but wish to delve further into the theory underlying some of the more pressing concerns in their design and operation.
Designed as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in engineering and physical sciences who are seeking a general overview of surface science, this book also provides the necessary background for researchers just starting out in the field. It covers all the most important aspects of modern surface science, from the experimental background and crystallographic basics to modern analytical techniques and applications to thin films and nanostructures. All topics are presented in a concise and clear form accessible to a beginner. At the same time, the coverage is comprehensive and at a high technical level, with emphasis on the fundamental physical principles. Numerous examples, references, practice exercises, and problems complement this remarkably complete treatment, which will also serve as an excellent reference for researchers and practitioners.
The classic textbook on fluid mechanics is revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling to better illustrate this important subject for modern students. With topics and concepts presented in a clear and accessible way, Fluid Mechanics guides students from the fundamentals to the analysis and application of fluid mechanics, including compressible flow and such diverse applications as aerodynamics and geophysical fluid mechanics. Its broad and deep coverage is ideal for both a first or second course in fluid dynamics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level, and is well-suited to the needs of modern scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and others seeking fluid mechanics knowledge. Over 100 new examples designed to illustrate the application of the various concepts and equations featured in the text A completely new chapter on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) authored by Prof. Gretar Tryggvason of the University of Notre Dame. This new CFD chapter includes sample MatlabTM codes and 20 exercises New material on elementary kinetic theory, non-Newtonian constitutive relationships, internal and external rough-wall turbulent flows, Reynolds-stress closure models, acoustic source terms, and unsteady one-dimensional gas dynamics Plus 110 new exercises and nearly 100 new figures
The book explores the phenomenon of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), the huge amplification of Raman signal from molecules in the proximity of a metallic nanostructured surface, allowing readers to gain an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms affecting the spectroscopic response of SERS-active systems for effective applications. SERS spectroscopy is an ultrasensitive analytical technique with great potential for applications in the field of biophysics and nanomedicine. As examples, the author presents the design of nanocolloid-based SERS-active substrates for molecular sensing and of a folate-based SERS-active nanosensor capable of selectively interacting with cancer cells, enabling cancer diagnostics and therapy at the single-cell level. The author also suggests novel paths for the systematization of the SERS nanosystem design and experimental protocols to maximize sensitivity and reproducibility, which is essential when real-world biomedical applications are the goal of the study. With a combined approach, both fundamental and applied, and a detailed analysis of the state of the art, this book provides a valuable overview both for students new to SERS spectroscopy and for experts in the field.
This book is an introduction to the physical principles underlying the behavior of materials consisting of grains. Such materials can be found in an enormous variety of places, ranging from the powders used to make vitamin pills to the rings of Saturn, from beaches to grain elevators, and from pottery clay to interstellar dust. Granular materials have interested physicists from Coulomb and Faraday to Reynolds and Rayleigh, but only recently have mathematical and experimental methods been developed to analyze their properties in detail. This text develops the fundamental physics of the behavior of granular materials. It covers the basic properties of flow, friction, and fluidization of uniform granular materials; discusses mixing and segregation of heterogeneous materials (the famous ´´brazil-nut problem´´); and concludes with an introduction to numerical models. The presentation begins with simple experiments and uses their results to build concepts and theorems about materials whose behavior is often quite counter-intuitive; it aims to present in a unified way the background needed to understand current work in the field. Developed for students at the University of Paris, the text will be suitable for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students; it should also be of interest to researchers and engineers just eentering the field.