Explains fundamental physics concepts, including mechanics, motion, conservation of energy, Newton´s laws, rotational dynamics, relativity, waves, and thermodynamics, while looking at how these ideas developed.
Short description/annotation Fundamentals of Multiphase Flow provides a coherent, unified treatment of multiphase flows emphasizing physical phenomena. Main description This book is targeted to graduate students and researchers at the cutting edge of investigations into the fundamental nature of multiphase flows. It is intended as a reference book for the basic methods used in the treatment of multiphase flows. The subject of multiphase flows encompasses a vast field whose broad spectrum presents a problem for the experimental and analytical methodologies that might be appropriate for the reader´s interests. The aim of Fundamentals of Multiphase Flow is to bring much of this fundamental understanding together into one book, presenting a unifying approach to the fundamental ideas of multiphase flows. The book summarizes those fundamental concepts with relevance to a broad spectrum of multiphase flows. It does not pretend to present a comprehensive review of the details of any one multiphase flow or technological context; references to such reviews are included where appropriate. Table of contents: 1. Introduction to multiphase flow; 2. Single particle motion; 3. Bubble or droplet translation; 4. Bubble growth and collapse; 5. Cavitation; 6. Boiling and condensation; 7. Flow patterns; 8. Internal flow energy conversion; 9. Homogenous flows; 10. Flows with bubble dynamics; 11. Flows with gas dynamics; 12. Sprays; 13. Granular flows; 14. Drift flux models; 15. System instabilities; 16. Kinematic waves.
The study of the electronic structure of materials is at a momentous stage, with the emergence of new computational methods and theoretical approaches. Many properties of materials can now be determined directly from the fundamental equations of quantum mechanics, bringing new insights into critical problems in physics, chemistry, and materials science. This volume provides an introduction to the field and describes its conceptual framework, the capabilities of present methods, limitations, and challenges for the future. Each chapter presents thoughtful exercises to emphasize salient points and to challenge the readers understanding.
This is a graduate text on turbulent flows, an important topic in fluid dynamics. It is up-to-date, comprehensive, designed for teaching, and is based on a course taught by the author at Cornell University for a number of years. The book consists of two parts followed by a number of appendices. Part I provides a general introduction to turbulent flows, how they behave, how they can be described quantitatively, and the fundamental physical processes involved. Part II is concerned with different approaches for modelling or simulating turbulent flows. The necessary mathematical techniques are presented in the appendices. This book is primarily intended as a graduate level text in turbulent flows for engineering students, but it may also be valuable to students in applied mathematics, physics, oceanography and atmospheric sciences, as well as researchers and practising engineers.
It is with great pleasure and satisfaction that we introduce this volume which comprises the papers accepted for the 4th International Conference on Hydrocyclones held in Southampton from 23rd to 25th September 1992. As the name implies, this is the fourth Conference in the series, with the previous ones held in Cambridge in 1980, Bath in 1984 and Oxford in 1987. The papers cover a wide span of activities, from fundamental research to advances in industrial practice and, as in the earlier volumes, make a significant contribution of lasting value to the technical literature on hydrocyclones. Hydrocyclones continue to widen their appeal to engineers; besides their traditional role in mineral processing they now attract a lot of attention in chemical engineering, the oil and gas industry, power generation, the food industry, textiles, metal working, waste water treatment, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and other industries. The reason for this continuously increasing attention is, as David Parkinson (General Manager of Conoco (UK)) said recently, that´´ ... a hydrocyclone is an engineering dream, a machine with no moving parts.´´ Yet as this Volume clearly shows, the hydrocyclone can do so many things and do them well, whether the application is in solid-liquid, liquid-liquid or liquid-gas separation.
This book is a comprehensive and intensive monograph for scientists, engineers and applied mathematicians, as well as graduate students in fluid dynamics. It starts with a brief review of fundamentals of fluid dynamics, with an innovative emphasis on the intrinsic orthogonal decomposition of fluid dynamic process, by which one naturally identifies the content and scope of vorticity and vortex dynamics. This is followed by a detailed presentation of vorticity dynamics as the basis of later development. In vortex dynamics part the book deals with the formation, motion, interaction, stability, and breakdown of various vortices. Typical vortex structures are analyzed in laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows, including stratified and rotational fluids. Physical understanding of vertical flow phenomena and mechanisms is the first priority throughout the book. To make the book self-contained, some mathematical background is briefly presented in the main text, but major prerequisites are systematically given in appendices. Material usually not seen in books on vortex dynamics is included, such as geophysical vortex dynamics, aerodynamic vortical flow diagnostics and management.
This self-contained textbook with exercises discusses a broad range of selected topics from classical mechanics and electromagnetic theory that inform key issues related to modern accelerators. Part I presents fundamentals of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism for mechanical systems, canonical transformations, action-angle variables, and then linear and nonlinear oscillators. The Hamiltonian for a circular accelerator is used to evaluate the equations of motion, the action, and betatron oscillations in an accelerator. From this base, we explore the impact of field errors and nonlinear resonances. This part ends with the concept of the distribution function and an introduction to the kinetic equation to describe large ensembles of charged particles and to supplement the previous single-particle analysis of beam dynamics. Part II focuses on classical electromagnetism and begins with an analysis of the electromagnetic field from relativistic beams, both in vacuum and in a resistive pipe. Plane electromagnetic waves and modes in waveguides and radio-frequency cavities are also discussed. The focus then turns to radiation processes of relativistic beams in different conditions, including transition, diffraction, synchrotron, and undulator radiation. Fundamental concepts such as the retarded time for the observed field from a charged particle, coherent and incoherent radiation, and the formation length of radiation are introduced. We conclude with a discussion of laser-driven acceleration of charged particles and the radiation damping effect. Appendices on electromagnetism and special relativity are included, and references are given in some chapters as a launching point for further reading. This text is intended for graduate students who are beginning to explore the field of accelerator physics, but is also recommended for those who are familiar with particle accelerators but wish to delve further into the theory underlying some of the more pressing concerns in their design and operation.
Designed as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in engineering and physical sciences who are seeking a general overview of surface science, this book also provides the necessary background for researchers just starting out in the field. It covers all the most important aspects of modern surface science, from the experimental background and crystallographic basics to modern analytical techniques and applications to thin films and nanostructures. All topics are presented in a concise and clear form accessible to a beginner. At the same time, the coverage is comprehensive and at a high technical level, with emphasis on the fundamental physical principles. Numerous examples, references, practice exercises, and problems complement this remarkably complete treatment, which will also serve as an excellent reference for researchers and practitioners.
The classic textbook on fluid mechanics is revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling to better illustrate this important subject for modern students. With topics and concepts presented in a clear and accessible way, Fluid Mechanics guides students from the fundamentals to the analysis and application of fluid mechanics, including compressible flow and such diverse applications as aerodynamics and geophysical fluid mechanics. Its broad and deep coverage is ideal for both a first or second course in fluid dynamics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level, and is well-suited to the needs of modern scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and others seeking fluid mechanics knowledge. Over 100 new examples designed to illustrate the application of the various concepts and equations featured in the text A completely new chapter on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) authored by Prof. Gretar Tryggvason of the University of Notre Dame. This new CFD chapter includes sample MatlabTM codes and 20 exercises New material on elementary kinetic theory, non-Newtonian constitutive relationships, internal and external rough-wall turbulent flows, Reynolds-stress closure models, acoustic source terms, and unsteady one-dimensional gas dynamics Plus 110 new exercises and nearly 100 new figures
With the field of CFD being over fifty years old and quite successfully applied in magneto-hydrodynamics in nuclear reactor research and rocket flights in the early 1960s when the USA ambitious project to reach the moon took off. Computers which saw rapid development in the following new generations could get solutions of CFD problems but as results poured in the things became more confusing, as while capturing one particular phenomena sharply the other got blurred. Many reasons for this came up but the present book harps on one most fundamental phenomena viz. frequency phenomena or the frequency shifted effects due to small vibrations in both theoretical and experimental data with theoretical one also bringing in the connection with grid size, time step and CFL number caused by numerical frequency shifted effects. How to solve this problem is still not fully described in this book and it is left to the imagination of the readers to do this by coming up with new methods.