This book presents an up-to-date formalism of non-equilibrium Green´s functions covering different applications ranging from solid state physics, plasma physics, cold atoms in optical lattices up to relativistic transport and heavy ion collisions.
This book is a pedagogical introduction to new concepts and quantum field theoretical methods in condensed matter physics, which may have an impact on our understanding of the origin of light, electrons and other elementary particles in the universe. Emphasis is on clear physical principles, whilst bringing students to the fore of todays research.
Superb introduction for nonspecialists covers Feynman diagrams, quasi particles, Fermi systems at finite temperature, superconductivity, vacuum amplitude, Dyson´s equation, ladder approximation, more. ´´A great delight.´´ -- ´´Physics Today.´´ 1974 edition.
Sliding friction is one of the oldest problems in physics and certainly one of the most important from a practical point of view. The ability to produce durable low-friction surfaces and lubricant fluids has become an important factor in the miniaturization of moving components in many technological devices, e.g., magnetic storage, recording systems, miniature motors and many aerospace components. This book will be useful to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and engineers who want to understand sliding friction. The book (or parts of it) could also form the basis for a modern undergraduate or graduate course on tribology. This second edition covers several new topics including friction on superconductors, experimental studies and computer simulations of the layering transition, nanoindentation, wear in combustion engines, rubber wear, effects due to humidity, rolling and sliding of carbon nanotubes and the friction dynamics of granular materials.
This book, a classic in its field, deals with the physical systems and physiological processes that intervene in music. It analyzes what objective, physical properties of sound are associated with what subjective psychological sensations of music, and it describes how these sound patterns are actually generated in musical instruments, how they propagate through the environment, and how they are detected by the ear and interpreted in the brain. Using the precise language of science, but without complicated mathematics, the author weaves a close mesh of the physics, psychophysics and neurobiology relevant to music. A prior knowledge of physics, mathematics, neurobiology or psychology is not required to understand most of the book; it is, however, assumed that the reader is familiar with music - in particular, with musical notation, musical scales and intervals, and some of the basics of musical instruments. This new edition presents substantially updated coverage of psychoacoustics, including: - New results from tomographic imaging of brain function that confirm some speculations in previous editions - New research on consciousness and emotions - The possibility of musics in extraterrestrial civilizations
This self-contained textbook with exercises discusses a broad range of selected topics from classical mechanics and electromagnetic theory that inform key issues related to modern accelerators. Part I presents fundamentals of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism for mechanical systems, canonical transformations, action-angle variables, and then linear and nonlinear oscillators. The Hamiltonian for a circular accelerator is used to evaluate the equations of motion, the action, and betatron oscillations in an accelerator. From this base, we explore the impact of field errors and nonlinear resonances. This part ends with the concept of the distribution function and an introduction to the kinetic equation to describe large ensembles of charged particles and to supplement the previous single-particle analysis of beam dynamics. Part II focuses on classical electromagnetism and begins with an analysis of the electromagnetic field from relativistic beams, both in vacuum and in a resistive pipe. Plane electromagnetic waves and modes in waveguides and radio-frequency cavities are also discussed. The focus then turns to radiation processes of relativistic beams in different conditions, including transition, diffraction, synchrotron, and undulator radiation. Fundamental concepts such as the retarded time for the observed field from a charged particle, coherent and incoherent radiation, and the formation length of radiation are introduced. We conclude with a discussion of laser-driven acceleration of charged particles and the radiation damping effect. Appendices on electromagnetism and special relativity are included, and references are given in some chapters as a launching point for further reading. This text is intended for graduate students who are beginning to explore the field of accelerator physics, but is also recommended for those who are familiar with particle accelerators but wish to delve further into the theory underlying some of the more pressing concerns in their design and operation.
An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics is a comprehensive, well-organized and engaging text covering every major area of modern astrophysics, from the solar system and stellar astronomy to galactic and extragalactic astrophysics, and cosmology. Designed to provide students with a working knowledge of modern astrophysics, this textbook is suitable for astronomy and physics majors who have had a first-year introductory physics course with calculus. Featuring a brief summary of the main scientific discoveries that have led to our current understanding of the universe; worked examples to facilitate the understanding of the concepts presented in the book; end-of-chapter problems to practice the skills acquired; and computational exercises to numerically model astronomical systems, the second edition of An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics is the go-to textbook for learning the core astrophysics curriculum as well as the many advances in the field.
Das Werk beschreibt erstmalig in einer geschlossenen Form eine Simulationsmethode zur schnellen Berechnung von Kontakteigenschaften und Reibung zwischen rauen Oberflächen. Im Unterschied zu bestehenden Simulationsverfahren basiert die Methode der Dimensionsreduktion (MDR) auf einer exakten Abbildung verschiedener Klassen von dreidimensionalen Kontaktproblemen auf Kontakte mit eindimensionalen Bettungen. Innerhalb der MDR wird jedoch nicht nur die Dimension von drei auf eins reduziert, sondern gleichermaßen sind voneinander unabhängige Freiheitsgrade gegeben. Die MDR beinhaltet daher eine enorme Reduktion sowohl der Entwicklungszeit für die numerische Implementierung von Kontaktproblemen als auch der direkten Rechenzeit und kann letztlich in der Tribologie eine ähnliche Rolle einnehmen wie FEM in der Strukturmechanik oder bekannte CFD-Löser in der Hydrodynamik. Darüber hinaus erleichtert sie in hohem Maße analytische Berechnungen und bietet eine Art ´´Taschenausgabe´´ der gesamten Kontaktmechanik. Messungen der Rheologie der kontaktierenden Körper sowie ihrer Oberflächentopographie und Adhäsionseigenschaften finden unmittelbaren Eingang in die Berechnung. Insbesondere ist es möglich, die gesamte Dynamik des Systems - beginnend mit der makroskopischen Systemdynamik über die makroskopische, dynamische Kontaktberechnung bis hin zum Einfluss der Rauheit - in einem numerischen Simulationsmodell zu erfassen. Die MDR erlaubt demnach die Vereinigung der charakteristischen Abläufe verschiedener Skalen. Zielsetzung des Buches ist es, einerseits die Berechtigung und Zuverlässigkeit der Methode zu belegen, andererseits ihre äußerst einfache Handhabung interessierten Praktikern zu erklären.
John Taylor has brought to his new book, Classical Mechanics , all of the clarity and insight that made his Introduction to Error Analysis a best-selling text. Classical Mechanics is intended for students who have studied some mechanics in an introductory physics course and covers such topics as conservation laws, oscillations, Lagrangian mechanics, two-body problems, non-inertial frames, rigid bodies, normal modes, chaos theory, Hamiltonian mechanics, and continuum mechanics. A particular highlight is the chapter on chaos, which focuses on a few simple systems, to give a truly comprehensible introduction to the concepts that we hear so much about. At the end of each chapter is a large selection of interesting problems for the student, classified by topic and approximate difficulty, and ranging from simple exercises to challenging computer projects. Taylor´s Classical Mechanics is a thorough and very readable introduction to a subject that is four hundred years old but as exciting today as ever. He manages to convey that excitement as well as deep understanding and insight.